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  • 大变局背景下的“中俄国际协作”——打开新局面 迈上新台阶
  • 2020-6-9 10:38:32    字数:8573    中俄资讯网101654.cn    欧阳向英
  • ZHONGEZIXUNWANGZILIAOTU

        阅读提示:本文拟对中俄国际协作各要素进行分析,从时代背景、主要平台和基本主张、推进措施三方面,提出中俄国际协作的基本框架,从而推动新时代中俄全面战略协作伙伴关系迈上新台阶。作者:欧阳向英

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        一、 中俄国际协作的时代背景

        1.SHIJIECHUYUBAINIANWEIYOUZHIDABIANJU,SHIZHONGEJIAQIANGGUOJIXIEZUODEHONGGUANBEIJING。QUANQIUHUASHENKEDIGAIBIANLESHIJIEGEJU,QIJINWEIZHIQIYIYIKENENGRENGBEIDIGU。YIFANGMIAN,QUANQIUJIAZHILIANJIANGGEGUOLIYIJINMILIANJIEZAIYIQI,GEGUOKEYICAIYONGZHENGZHI、WAIJIAO、JINGJIHEWENHUADENGZONGHESHOUDUANXIANGHUXIEDIAOHEZHIYUE,ERBUDANCHUNYIKAOJUNSHIZHENGFULAIMOUQULIYI,ZHEISHIHEZUOGONGYINGCHENGWEIKENENG;LINGYIFANGMIAN,GUOJILILIANGDUIBIFASHENGZHONGDAGAIBIAN,FAZHANZHONGGUOJIAQUNTIXINGJUEQI,BIRANTICHUGAISHANGUOJILIYIFENPEIGEJUDEYAOQIU。ZHENGRUXIJINPINGZHUXISUOZHICHUDE:“GUOQUSHUSHINIAN,GUOJIJINGJILILIANGDUIBISHENKEYANBIAN,ERQUANQIUZHILITIXIWEINENGFANYINGXINGEJU,DAIBIAOXINGHEBAORONGXINGHENBUGOU。”[1]YOUYUJIUDEBUGONGZHENG、BUHELIDEGUOJITIXIZUAIZHEXINXINGSHICHANGHEFAZHANZHONGGUOJIAJINYIBUFAZHAN,ZHONGEHEQITAXINXINGGUOJIABIRANHUIZAIGUOJIWUTAISHANGFACHUZIJIDESHENGYIN,GONGTONGTUIDONGGUOJIXINZHIXUDEJIANLIHEXINGCHENG。

        2.QUANQIUZHILICHIZIJIAJU,SHIZHONGEJIAQIANGGUOJIXIEZUODEZHONGGUANBEIJING。CONGGUOJIZHENGZHIDEXIANSHILAIKAN,ERZHANHOUZHANSHENGGUOJIANLIQIYAERTATIXI,ZHUYAOBIAOXIANWEIYILIANHEGUOZHEIYIGUOJIZUZHIWEIKUANGJIA,YIMEISUWEICHILIANGJIJUNSHIHEDAGUOXIEDIAOWEITEZHENGDEQUANQIUZHILIMOSHI。LIANHEGUODEHEXINJIGOUANLIHUIDEBIAOJUECHENGXUSHIXING“YAERTAGONGSHI”,JI“DAGUOYIZHIYUANZE”,YEJIUSHIMEI、E、ZHONG、YING、FAWUDAGUOJIUZHONGYAODEGUOJIWENTIBIXUDACHENGYIZHI,FOUZEKEYIXINGSHIYIPIAOFOUJUEQUAN。QUANQIUWENTIDEJIEJUEXUYAOGUOJISHEHUIFUCHUGONGTONGNULI,TEBIESHIDAGUO,YOUQISHILIANHEGUOANLIHUICHANGRENLISHIGUO,ZAILIANHEGUODEWOXUANHEDIAOJIEXIAJIANGDILEJUNSHIWEIXIEZAIGUOJIZHENGZHIZHONGDEYINGXIANG,ZHEISHIYAERTAGONGSHIDEZHENGMIANZUOYONG。RANER,YAERTATIXIZUNXUNDEDAGUOYIZHIYUANZEBUTONGYUWEISITEFALIYATIXIDEZHUQUANHEPINGDENGYUANZE,YEYUGUOJIMINZHULINIANYOUCHONGTU,DUIDADUOSHUZHONGXIAOGUOJIAKENENGYIWEIZHEBUGONGZHENGBUPINGDENG,ZHEISHIYAERTAGONGSHIDEFUMIANZUOYONG。RUGUOSHUOERZHANHOUDESHIJIETIXIKAOMEISUDUIZHIXINGCHENGMOUZHONGZHANGLIYUPINGHENG,NEIMESULIANJIETIHOUELUOSISHANGBUZUYIYUMEIGUOGAOLIANGJIMOSHI,ERMEIGUODUJIAYEWUFAWEICHISHIJIETIXIDEWENDING,JIUSHIDEQUANQIUZHILICHUXIANLEQUANLIZHENKONG。GEGUOFENFENZHUZHANGSHIJIEDUOJIHUA,LIANHEGUODEDAGUOYIZHIYUANZEZAODAOZHIYI。ZHONGGUOZHUZHANGGUOJIABUFENDAXIAOYILVPINGDENG,WULUNWAIJIAOZHENGCERUHEDIAOZHENG,WANLONGHUIYIJINGSHENSHIZHONGTIXIANZHEXINZHONGGUOHEPINGWAIJIAODEYIXIEJIBENNEIHAN,RUYAOHEPINGGONGCHU,BUYAOGANSHEDIANFU;YAOXIANGHUZUNZHONG,BUYAOXIANGHUBIANDI;YAOQIUTONGCUNYI,BUYAOFENLIEDUIKANG;YAOXIESHANGGONGSHANG,BUYAOYIDAQIXIAO;YAOLIANHEZIQIANG,BUGAOLIYUPINGHENG;YAOTANCHENGXIANGDAI,BUYAOHUXIANGCAIYI,DENGDENG。RANER,ZHONGGUOHEXINXINGGUOJIADEJITIZHUZHANGQUEBUBEIZHUZAIGUOJIGUIZEDEFADAGUOJIASUOJIESHOU。MEIGUOZONGTONGTELANGPUSHANGTAIYILAI,QIANGDIAOMEIGUOLIYIZHISHANG,JIXIANGFAZHANZHONGGUOJIA,YEXIANGFADAGUOJIA,SHENZHIXIANGMENGYOUHUIDONGDABANGZHENGCE,WEIXIEQITUICHUDUOBIANXIEDIAOJIGOU。BAQUANZHUYIHEDANBIANZHUYISHENGXING,QUANQIUZHILICHIZIJIAJU。ZAIZHEIZHONGTIAOJIANXIA,ZHONGEZIRANBUHUIZHUDONGFANGQISHENWEIDAGUOZAIQUANLIJIEGOUZHONGDEDIWEIYUWENDINGXING,HUIGENGJIAZHONGSHIDAGUOXIEDIAOYUQUANLIZHIHENG。

        3.FAZHANZHONGDAGUODEGONGTONGSHENFEN,SHIZHONGEJIAQIANGGUOJIXIEZUODEWEIGUANBEIJING。DUIELUOSILAISHUO,YOUNENGYUANHEYUANLIAOGONGJIGUODEJIBENJINGJIDIWEISUOJUEDING,QIZAIQUANQIUJIAZHILIANDEZHONGDIDUANZHANWEI,BIRANSHIQIGENGJIAGUANZHUSHIJIEJINGJITIXIDEBUPINGDENGWENTI。SULIANJIUBUJINJIJICHANGDAOJIANLIPINGXINGSHIJIE,ERQIEXIWANGDISANSHIJIENENGGOUBAITUODUIFADAGUOJIADEJINGJIYIFU,RENWEIZHEISHISHIXIANZIYOUDEQIANTI。RUJIN,BULUNSHIJIETICHUQIJIJICANYUJINGJIQUANQIUHUA,HAISHI2011NIANHOUMINGXIANJIAQIANGQUYUYITIHUA,DOUKESHIWEIELUOSIJINGJIKAIFANGXINGZENGQIANGDEBIAOXIAN。RANER,ZAICUJINSHEHUIGONGZHENG、XIAOCHUBUPINGDENGFANGMIAN,JINGUANELUOSIZAIGUONEICAIQULEYIXILIECUOSHI,DANZAIGUOJICENGMIANQUEWUJIKESHI。YOUXUEZHEJIANGELUOSIDUIGUOJIZHIXUDELIJIEGUINAWEI“GUOJIAZHONGXINZHUYIDE、BINGQIESHIKESHOUCHUANTONGDE”,[2]ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGQUESHIRUCI。ELUOSIDUIJINLINDIQUBIAOXIANCHUDENGJIZHIHEGANYUZHUYIQINGXIANG,ZHEIDUITAZAIHOUSULIANKONGJIANNINGJURENXINXINGCHENGLEMOUZHONGGANRAO。WUKELANWEIJIHOU,“DONGXIANG”ZHANLVEDAITIYUANLAIDEDAOUZHOUHERONGRUOUZHOUZHANLVE,ZHIZAIYIOUYAZHUYIQUDAIDAXIYANGZHUYI、YONGDALUWENMINGDUIKANGHAIYANGWENMING、YIOUYADALUYITIHUAFANDUIANGGELU-SAKESENSHIJIEDANJIHUA,WEIZHONGELIANSHOUXIEZUOKAIQILEXINPIANZHANG。JINGUANRUCI,ELUOSIZHIZAIJUNSHIHEANQUANLINGYUZHANJUCHUANTONGYOUSHIDIWEI,DUIGUOJIJINRONG-MAOYITIXINAIZHISHIJIEJINGJIDEZOUXIANGTANBUSHANGYOUDUODAYINGXIANG,ERZHONGGUOYESHENSHOUFADAGUOJIAZAIGUOJIJINGJIZHIDUSHEJISHANGDEZHONGZHONGJIYA,BUDEBUYINGDUIZOUMADENGBANDETPP (CPTPP)、TTIPHETISADENGXINGUIZEXINPINGTAI。ZHONGEDEKUNJINGYESHIDADUOSHUJINGJIGUIMOHESHILIBINGBUQIANGDADEGUOJIADEKUNJING,MINGZHICHUYUSHIJIEJINGJITIXIDEBIANYUANDIWEI,SHENSHOUZHONGXINGUOJIADEBOXUE,QUEBUDEBUCANYUQIZHONG。ZHONGEGUOJIXIEZUOZUOWEIGUANGFANYIYISHANGNANNANHEZUODEYIBUFEN,DAIDONGXINXINGJINGJITIGENGDUOCANYUDAOGUOJIJINGJIYICHENGZHONGLAI,JIJIFASHENGHUYU,BINGYISHIJIXINGDONGCUCHENGBIANGE,ZHEIYOULIYUGUOJIBUPINGDENGDEJIEJUE。

        2014NIANYILAI,ZHONGEQUANMIANZHANLVEXIEZUOHUOBANGUANXIBUDUANTIZHISHENGJI,ZHENGZHIHUXINHEJINGMAOWANGLAIDADAZENGQIANG。2016NIAN6YUE25RI,ELUOSIYUZHONGGUOQIANSHU《GUANYUCUJINGUOJIFADESHENGMING》,SHUANGFANGZHONGSHENLEZUNSHOUXIANGGUANGUOJIZHUNZEDECHENGNUO,QIANGDIAOZHUQUANPINGDENGYIJIBUGANSHETAGUODUINEIYUDUIWAISHIWUDEYUANZE,YINGCHENGWEIGUOJISHEHUISUOYOUCHENGYUANJIANLIPINGDENGHEBUKEFENGEDEANQUANYUJINGJIHEZUOGONGTONGKONGJIANDEJISHI。ZHONGEZAIGUOJIZHENGZHISHANGDEGONGTONGLICHANG,SHIDEZHONGEZAIGUOJISHIWUZHONGDEXIETONGXINGDADAZENGQIANG。ZAISHEJIQUANQIUZHILIDEXUDUOZHONGDAWENTISHANG,ZHONGELIANGGUOTONGSHENGGONGQI,XIANGHUYIZHONG,WEITUIDONGGUOJIZHIXUXIANGGENGGONGPINGGENGHELIFANGXIANGMAIJINZUOCHULEGONGXIAN。

        二、 中俄国际协作的主要平台和基本主张

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    ZHONGEZIXUNWANGZILIAOTU

        1.LIANHEGUO。LIANHEGUOCHENGLIYU1945NIAN,ZHILIYUCUJINGEGUOZAIGUOJIFA、GUOJIANQUAN、JINGJIFAZHAN、SHEHUIJINBU、RENQUANJISHIXIANSHIJIEHEPINGFANGMIANDEHEZUO。MUQIANGONGYOU193GECHENGYUANGUO,BIANJIYAZHOU、FEIZHOU、OUZHOU、MEIZHOUHEDAYANGZHOU。LIANHEGUODEZHUYAOJIGOUYOU:LIANHEGUODAHUI、MISHUCHU、ANQUANLISHIHUI、JINGJIJISHEHUILISHIHUI、TUOGUANLISHIHUIHEGUOJIFAYUANDENG。ZHONGGUOHEELUOSIDUILIANHEGUOSHIWUJINXINGLEGUANGFANERJIJIDECANYU。LIANGGUOGAODUPINGJIALIANHEGUODEDIWEIHEZUOYONG,RENWEIQIANGYOULIDELIANHEGUOSHIJIANKANGGUOJIGUANXIDEJICHU,LIANHEGUOZAIWEIHUSHIJIEHEPING、JIEJUEJINGJIHESHEHUIWENTI、CUJINRENQUANSHIYEFAZHANZHONGDEZUOYONGBUKETIDAI。WEIHUYILIANHEGUOWEIHEXINDEGUOJITIXI、YIGUOJIFAWEIJICHUDEGUOJIZHIXU,SHIZHONGEDEJIBENZHUZHANGMINGXIANBUTONGYUMOUXIEXIFANGDAGUO。LIANGGUOQIANGDIAOYAOJIANCHI《LIANHEGUOXIANZHANG》ZONGZHIHEYUANZE,BAOKUOZHUQUANPINGDENGHEBUGANSHENEIZHENG,YIGUANGFANGUOJIHEZUOWEIYITUO,TUIJINQUANQIUZHILIGAIGE,ZHICHIDUOBIANMAOYITIZHI,TUIDONGGOUJIANGENGJIAGONGPINGJUNHENGWENDINGDEXINXINGGUOJIGEJU,WEISHIJIEGEGUOHERENMINJINYIBUFAZHANTIGONGJIYU。ZHONGELIANGGUODOUZANCHENGDUILIANHEGUOJINXINGGAIGE,DANRENWEIGAIGEZHIYOUZAIHUIYUANGUOJINKENENGDACHENGZUIGUANGFANDEXIEYIJICHUSHANGCAINENGJINXING,FANDUIJIANGGAIGEBENSHENSHIWEIMUDE,FANDUIRENWEISHEZHISHIXIAN,BUZHUZHANGQIANGTUIBUCHENGSHUDEGAIGEFANGAN,QIANGDIAOYAOJIANGUGEFANGLIYIHEGUANQIE。FANDUIJIANGGUOJIRENQUANYICHENGZHENGZHIHUA,FANDUICAIQU“SHUANGZHONGBIAOZHUN”,FANDUIYIRENQUANWEIJIEKOUGANSHEZHUQUANGUOJIANEIZHENG,FANDUIQITUDANHUALIANHEGUORENQUANJIGOUWEIZHENGFUJIANJIGOUDESHUXING,FANDUIWAIQUCUANGAILISHI,DIANFUXIANXINGGUOJIGUANXIHEGUOJIFATIXI。LIANGGUODOUFANDUIDANBIANZHUYIHEBAQUANZHUYI,ZHUZHANGTONGGUOZHENGZHIXIESHANGJIEJUECHONGTU,QIANGDIAOBAOHURENQUANDEHUODONGYINGYIGONGPINGHEXIANGHUZUNZHONGDEDUIHUAWEIQIANTI,BINGRENWEILIANHEGUODEYITIYINGYOUZHUYUGEGUODETUANJIE,ERBUSHICHANSHENGXINDEFENQI。

        2.LIANHEGUOANLIHUI。LIANHEGUOANQUANLISHIHUICHENGLIYU1946NIAN,SHILIANHEGUOLIUDAZHUYAOJIGOUZHIYI,FUYOUWEIHUGUOJIHEPINGYUANQUANDEZEREN,SHIWEIYIYOUQUANCAIQUQIANGZHIXINGDONGDELIANHEGUOJIGOU。LIANHEGUOANQUANLISHIHUIDEWUDACHANGRENLISHIGUOYOU:MEILIJIANHEZHONGGUO、ELUOSILIANBANG、DABULIEDIANJIBEIAIERLANLIANHEWANGGUO、FALANXIGONGHEGUOHEZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUO。ZUOWEILIANGDACHANGRENLISHIGUO,ZHONGEDUILIANHEGUOANLIHUIDEGEXIANGYITISHIFENGUANZHU,JIJITICHUDIAOJIEZHENGDUANDEFANGFAHUOJIEJUECHONGTUDEJIANYI,PAICHUWEIHEBUDUICANYULIANHEGUOJUNSHIXINGDONGDENG。JINGUANLIANGGUOZAISHEJIJUTIGUOJIADEJUTIYITISHIBINGBUZONGSHIYIJIANYIZHI,DANZHONGEZAIGUOJIANQUANLINGYUDOUZHICHIHEWUQIBUKUOSANTIAOYUEHEDAJIKONGBUZHUYI,ZHEISHIGAODUYIZHIDE。ZAIGUOJITIXIKUANGJIANEIMOUQIUZISHENXINGWEIDEHEFAXING,TUOZHANBENGUOLIYIKONGJIAN,ZAIGUANXIDAOSHIJIEHEPINGYUANQUANDEZHONGDAGUOJISHIWUZHONGFAHUIZUOYONG,SHIZHONGEZAILIANHEGUOANLIHUIDEZHUYAOMUBIAO。ZAIBANDAOWENTISHANG,JIANCHICHAOXIANBANDAOWUHEHUAMUBIAO,QIANGDIAODUIHUAXIESHANGSHIJIEJUEBANDAOWENTIDEWEIYIYOUXIAOTUJING,ZHONGEWEITUIDONGZHENGZHIJIEJUEBANDAOWENTIJIJIANLIBENDIQUHEPINGYUANQUANJIZHICHIXUFAHUIJIJIZUOYONG。ZAIXULIYAWENTISHANG,QIANGDIAOZHINENGTONGGUOZHENGZHIHEWAIJIAOSHOUDUANJIEJUE,HUANYINGASITANADANBAOGUOZAIGAISHANXULIYAJUSHIFANGMIANSUOZUODENULI,ZHONGSHENYINGDAJIXULIYAJINGNEIBAOKUOBEILIANHEGUOANLIHUILIEMINGKONGBUZUZHIZAINEIDESUOYOUKONGBUZUZHI,QIANGDIAOXULIYAZHONGJIANDEPOQIEXING,JIUPAILEIDENGXIANGXUTIGONGXIEZHU,BINGYUANJIUCIJIAQIANGGOUTONGXIEDIAO,QIANGDIAONANMINJINKUAIHUIGUOHEJINGNEILIULISHISUOZHEZHONGFANJIAYUANDEZHONGYAOXING。ZAIYILANGHEWENTISHANG,SHUANGFANGGAODUPINGJIAYILANGYANGEZHIXINGYIHEWENTIQUANMIANXIEYISUOYOUXIANGGUANYAOQIUBINGDEDAOGUOJIYUANZINENGJIGOUDUOCIQUEREN,QIDAIYILANGHEWENTIQUANMIANXIEYICANYUFANGTONGYANGRENZHENFUZEDIDUIDAIZISHENYIWU,JIANJUEFANDUIRENHEGUOJIAYIBENGUOFALVWEIYOUSHISHIDANBIANZHICAIHE“ZHANGBEIGUANXIA”。JIANYUBALESITANWENTISHIZHONGDONGDIQUZHUDUOWENTIDEGENYUAN,ZHICHIJIANLIYI1967NIANBIANJIEWEIJICHU、YIDONGYELUSALENGWEISHOUDOU、YONGYOUWANQUANZHUQUANDE、DULIDE、JUYOUFAZHANQIANJINGDEBALESITANGUO。ZAIAFUHANMINZUHEJIE、LAMEISHIWU、FEIZHOUSHIWUDENGWENTISHANG,HUYUGEFANGKESHOU《LIANHEGUOXIANZHANG》、GUOJIFAHEGUOJIGUANXIZHUNZE,JIANCHIBUGANSHENEIZHENGYUANZE,TUIDONGYOUGUANWENTITONGGUOBAORONGZHENGZHIDUIHUAHEPINGJIEJUE,FANDUIWAIGUOJUNSHIGANSHE。

        3.SHANGHEZUZHI。SHANGHAIHEZUOZUZHI2001NIANCHENGLIYUSHANGHAI,SHIQUYUXINGZHENGFUJIANGUOJIZUZHI,CHUANGSHIGUOYOUZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUO、HASAKESITANGONGHEGUO、JIERJISISITANGONGHEGUO、ELUOSILIANBANG、TAJIKESITANGONGHEGUO、WUZIBIEKESITANGONGHEGUO。2017NIANZAIASITANASHANGHEZUZHIFENGHUISHANGYINDUHEBAJISITANBEIJIESHOUWEIZHENGSHICHENGYUAN。SHANGHAIHEZUOZUZHIDEZONGZHISHIJIAQIANGCHENGYUANGUOZHIJIANDEHUXIANGXINRENYUMULINYOUHAO;GULICHENGYUANGUOZAIZHENGZHI、JINGJI、KEJI、WENHUA、JIAOYU、NENGYUAN、JIAOTONG、HUANBAOHEQITALINGYUDEYOUXIAOHEZUO;LIANHEZHILIYUWEIHUHEBAOZHANGDIQUDEHEPING、ANQUANYUWENDING;JIANLIMINZHU、GONGZHENG、HELIDEGUOJIZHENGZHIJINGJIXINZHIXU。YI“HUXIN、HULI、PINGDENG、XIESHANG、ZUNZHONGDUOYANGWENMING、MOUQIULIANHEFAZHAN”WEIJIBENNEIRONGDE “SHANGHAIJINGSHEN”,SHISHANGHAIHEZUOZUZHICHENGYUANGUOCHULIGUOJIGUANXIDEJIBENZHUNZE。ZHONGESHUANGFANGDOURENWEI,ZAISHANGHAIHEZUOZUZHIZHEIYIJUYOUDAIBIAOXINGDEQUYUXINGGUOJIZUZHIDEHUODONGZHONG,SHIZHONGGUANCHUANZHEJIANLIGONGZHENGHELI、PINGDENGHULI、XIANGHUZUNZHONGDESHIJIEDESIXIANG。SHUANGFANGJIANGQISHIWEIZAIOUYADALUTEBIESHIZHONGYADIQUQUELIHEPING、ANQUAN、HEZUODEZHONGYAOSHOUDUANHEWEILAIJIANLIYIGUOJIFAWEIJICHUDEDUOJISHIJIEGEJUDEJIBENYINSUZHIYI。ZHONGEDOURENWEI,YIXIANGHUZUNZHONG、KAOLVBICILIYI、HEZUOGONGYING、BUCHONGTU、BUDUIKANG、PINGDENGHEBUKEFENGEANQUANDENGGUOJIFAYUANZEHEZHUNZEWEIJICHU,GOUJIANGONGZHENGHELI、FUHEGEGUOGONGTONGJIGEZILIYIDEDUOJISHIJIEGEJUHEXINXINGGUOJIGUANXISHIFENZHONGYAO,YOULIYUTUIDONGGOUJIANRENLEIMINGYUNGONGTONGTI。

        4.20GUOJITUAN。20GUOJITUAN(G20)SHIQUANQIUJINGJIHEZUODEZHUYAOLUNTAN,YU1999NIANYOUBAGUOJITUAN(G8)DECAIZHANGZAIDEGUOBOLINCHENGLI,SHUYUFEIZHENGSHIDUIHUADEYIZHONGJIZHI,JIERKUOZHANDAO20GEZHONGYAOJINGJITI(BAOKUOZHONGGUO、AGENTING、AODALIYA、BAXI、JIANADA、FAGUO、DEGUO、YINDU、YINDUNIXIYA、YIDALI、RIBEN、HANGUO、MOXIGE、SHATEALABO、NANFEI、TUERQI、YINGGUO、MEIGUO、ELUOSIYIJIOUMENG)。G20DECHENGLIYOULIDITUIDONGLEQUANQIUZHILICONG“XIFANGZHILI”XIANG“XIFANGHEFEIXIFANGGONGTONGZHILI”DEZHUANBIAN。ZHONGELIANGGUODOUJIANGG20ZUOWEIQUANQIUJINGJIZHILIDEZHONGYAOPINGTAI,CHANGYIJIANLIDUOBIANMAOYITIXI,TUIDONGGUOJIJINRONG-HUOBITIXIGAIGE,CUJINMAOYIHETOUZIHUANJINGTOUMINGHUA,GULINENGYUANCHANYE“LVSE”ZENGZHANG,FANDUIFUBAI,LUOSHILIANHEGUO2030KECHIXUFAZHANYICHENG,DENGDENG。LIANGGUODOURENWEIFADAGUOJIADUISHIJIEJINGJIDEFAZHANYUFANRONGFUYOUGENGDADEZEREN,TEBIESHIFADAGUOJIADEHUOBIZHENGCEYINGYIGUONEIJIAGEWENDINGHEJINGJIFUSUWEIMUBIAO,JINLIANGJIANXIAODUIQITAGUOJIADEFUMIANYICHUXIAOYING;TUIJINJIEGOUGAIGE、SHUZIJINGJI、XINJISHUYINGYONG、DIANZISHANGWU、KECHIXUFAZHAN、QIHOUBIANHUA、JICHUSHESHIHULIANHUTONG、GUOJIJINRONGTIXIGAIGE、ZHICHIZHONGXIAOWEIQIYE、GONGGUQUANQIUJIAZHILIANDENGLINGYUGUOJIHEZUO,TUIDONGSHIJIEJINGJIQIANGJING、KECHIXU、PINGHENG、BAORONGZENGZHANG。

        5.SHIJIEMAOYIZUZHI。SHIJIEMAOYIZUZHI(WTO)CHENGLIYU1995NIAN1YUE1RI,SHISHIJIEJINGJIFAZHANDESANDAZHIZHUZHIYI, YONGYOU164GECHENGYUANGUO,CHENGYUANMAOYIZONGEDADAOQUANQIUDE98%,YOU“JINGJILIANHEGUO”ZHICHENG。QIJIBENYUANZESHITONGGUOSHISHISHICHANGKAIFANG、FEIQISHIHEGONGPINGMAOYIDENGYUANZE,LAISHIXIANSHIJIEMAOYIZIYOUHUADEMUBIAO。ZHONGGUOHEELUOSIFENBIEYU2001NIANHE2012NIANJIARU。ZHONGEDOUFANDUIBAOKUODANBIANMAOYIZHICAIZAINEIDERENHEXINGSHIDEBAOHUZHUYI,WEIHUBINGGONGGUYISHIJIEMAOYIZUZHIHEXINZUOYONGHEGUIZEWEIJICHUDEKAIFANG、TOUMING、BAORONG、FEIQISHIDEDUOBIANMAOYITIZHI。LIANGGUOJIJICANYUSHIMAOZUZHIKUANGJIANEIGONGZUO,TANSUOWANSHANNONGYE、TOUZIBIANLIHUA、FUWULINGYUGUONEIGUIZE、ZHONGXIAOWEIQIYEHUODONG、DIANZISHANGWUHEMAOYIJIUJICUOSHIDENGLINGYUXIANXINGGUIZEBINGYANJIUZHIDINGXINDEFEIQISHIDUOBIANMAOYIGUIZE,ZHUZHANGZAISHIMAOZUZHITANPANZHONGJIUFUHEGEFANGLIYIDEWENTIXINGCHENGHELI。WEIGONGGUSHIJIEMAOYIZUZHIZUOYONG,SHIQISHIYINGDANGDAIJINGJIXIANZHUANGHETIAOZHAN,TUIDONGSHIMAOZUZHIJINXINGBIYAOGAIGE,TIGAOJIANDU、TANPANHEZHENGDUANJIEJUESANXIANGGUANJIANZHINENGDEGONGZUOXIAOLV,DANGAIGEGUOCHENGZHONGYINGZHEYANWEIHUSHIMAOZUZHIHEXINJIAZHIHEJIBENYUANZE。

        6.OUYAJINGJILIANMENG。OUYAJINGJILIANMENGCHENGLIYU2015NIAN,CHENGYUANGUOBAOKUOELUOSI、HASAKESITAN、BAIELUOSI、JIERJISISITANHEYAMEINIYA。ZHONGEZAILIANMENGDEGUOJIXIEZUOZHUYAOTIXIANZAITUIDONG“OUYAJINGJILIANMENG”YU“SICHOUZHILUJINGJIDAI”DUIJIE。2018NIAN5YUE17RIHASAKESITANASITANAJINGJILUNTANQIJIAN,ZHONGGUOSHANGWUBUGUOJIMAOYITANPANDAIBIAOJIANFUBUZHANGFUZIYINGYUOUYAJINGJIWEIYUANHUIZHIWEIHUIZHUXISAERJIXIANGJIOUYAJINGJILIANMENGGECHENGYUANGUODAIBIAOGONGTONGQIANSHULE《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOYUOUYAJINGJILIANMENGJINGMAOHEZUOXIEDING》,HANGAIHAIGUANHEZUOHEMAOYIBIANLIHUA、ZHISHICHANQUAN、BUMENHEZUOYIJIZHENGFUCAIGOUDENG13GEZHANGJIE,BAOHANLEDIANZISHANGWUHEJINGZHENGDENGXINYITI。《XIEDING》SHIWOGUOYULIANMENGSHOUCIDACHENGDEJINGMAOFANGMIANZHONGYAOZHIDUXINGANPAI,BIAOZHIZHEZHONGGUOYULIANMENGJIQICHENGYUANGUOJINGMAOHEZUOCONGXIANGMUDAIDONGJINRUZHIDUYINLINGDEXINJIEDUAN,DUIYUTUIDONG“YIDAIYILU”JIANSHEYUOUYAJINGJILIANMENGJIANSHEDUIJIEHEZUOJUYOULICHENGBEIYIYI。

        7.JINZHUANGUOJIA。JINZHUANWUGUOJITUANBAOKUOBAXI、ELUOSI、YINDU、ZHONGGUOHENANFEI。JINZHUANGUOJIAZUNXUNKAIFANGTOUMING、TUANJIEHUZHU、SHENHUAHEZUO、GONGMOUFAZHANYUANZEHE“KAIFANG、BAORONG、HEZUO、GONGYING”DEJINZHUANGUOJIAJINGSHEN,ZHILIYUGOUJIANGENGJINMI、GENGQUANMIAN、GENGLAOGUDEHUOBANGUANXI。2015NIANHE2017NIAN,ELUOSIHEZHONGGUOFENBIEDANRENJINZHUANGUOJIAJIZHILUNZHIZHUXIGUO。ZHONGEZAIDANRENJINZHUANGUOJIAZHUXIGUOQIJIAN,DOUDUISHIJIEJINGJIHEGUOJIHEZUOTICHULEYUANJING,XIWANGSHENHUAWUSHIHEZUO,JIAQIANGQUANQIUZHILI,KAIZHANRENWENJIAOLIU,TUIJINJIZHIJIANSHE,JIANSHAOWAIBUXINGJINGJIBODONGYINSU,SHISHIJIEJINGJICHIXUWENDINGZENGZHANG。FANDUIGUOJIJINGMAOHEZUOZHONGDEZHENGZHILONGDUANHEHUOBIEZHA,QIANZEGEBIEGUOJIAQITUZHANGKONGBIEGUOKAIZHANZHENGDANGHEZUODEBIYAOXINGHECHIDU,CAOZONGQUANQIUBUKUOSANZHIDU,XIANGBUHEQIXINYIDEGUOJIASHIYA。ZHILIYUQUANMIANLUOSHI2030NIANKECHIXUFAZHANYICHENG,PINGHENGXIEDIAOTUIJINJINGJI、SHEHUIHEHUANJINGSANDALINGYUDEGONGPING、BAORONG、KAIFANG、QUANMIAN、CHUANGXINHEKECHIXUFAZHAN。JIAQIANGFANFUBAIGUOJIZHILI,ZHICHIGENJU《LIANHEGUOFANFUBAIGONGYUE》KAIZHANYUFANGHEDAJIFUBAIFANGMIANDEGUOJIHEZUODENG。

        CIWAI,ZHONGELIANGGUOZAIDONGYAFENGHUI、DONGMENGDIQULUNTAN、DONGMENGFANGZHANGKUODAHUIDENGPINGTAIZHONGJUYOUGUANGFANDEXIEZUO,ZAIYAOUHUIYI、YAZHOUHEZUODUIHUA、YAXIN、DATUMENCHANGYIJIQITADIQUJIZHIKUANGJIANEIDEHEZUOYEZAIBUDUANSHENHUA。

    ZHONGEZIXUNWANGZILIAOTU

        三、 中俄国际协作的推进措施

        ZHENGRU《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOHEELUOSILIANBANGGUANYUFAZHANXINSHIDAIQUANMIANZHANLVEXIEZUOHUOBANGUANXIDELIANHESHENGMING》ZHONGZHICHU:“ZHONGEGUOJIXIEZUODEZONGZHISHITIXIANSHUANGFANGZUOWEISHIJIEDAGUOHEANLIHUICHANGRENLISHIGUODESHIMINGHEDANDANG,ZHILIYUWEIHUSHIJIEHEPINGWENDINGHEGUOJIGONGPING,CUJINZUNZHONGGUOJIFA,TUIDONGGUOJIGUANXIMINZHUHUA,TUIDONGGUOJIZHIXUCHAOGENGJIAGONGZHENGHELIDEFANGXIANGFAZHAN。”[3]WEICI,LIANGGUOYINGCAIQUJIJICUOSHI,JIXUTUIJINLIANGGUOGUOJIXIEZUOXIANGZONGSHENFANGXIANGFAZHAN。

        YISHIJIAQIANGZHANLVEXIETONG。ZHANLVEHUXINSHIZHANLVEXIETONGDEQIANTI。ZHANLVEXIETONGZHIGEZHANLVEJITUANWEIZHIXINGGONGTONGDEZHANLVERENWU,ANZHAOTONGYIDEJIHUAHUOYITUCAIQUYIZHIXINGDONG。XIETONGKEYISHIJUBUDE,ZHENDUIMOUYIJUTISHIJIAN,YEKEYISHIQUANJUDE,JIANLIZAIZHANGSHIDUANDAPANDUANJICHUSHANG。ZHONGESHIQUANMIANZHANLVEXIEZUOHUOBANGUANXI,LIANGGUOGUONEIDOUYOUFENCHANYE、FENBUMENDEZHONGZHANGQIFAZHANGUIHUA,DUIWAIGUANXISHANGYEYOUZIJIDEZHANLVEMUBIAOHEJUNSHIXUESHUO。WEIBIMIANZHANLVEWUPAN,JIAQIANGXINGDONGDEYIZHIXINGHEXIEDIAOXING,ZHONGELIANGGUOSHOUXIANYINGGAIJIAQIANGZHANLVEXIETONG。

        ERSHIZHUZHONGZHENGCEGOUTONG。ZHENGCEGOUTONGSHIQUEBAOZHIXINGRENWUDEYIZHIXINGHEXIEDIAOXINGDEZHONGYAOSHOUDUAN。YUANSHOUWAIJIAOSHIZHONGELIANGGUOTESEXIANMINGDEWAIJIAOTONGDAO,CIWAILIANGGUOJIANLIZAIBUTONGJIBIESHANGDECHANGSHEDUIHUAXIAOZUHEYISHIJIZHIYEYINGBAOZHENGCHANGTONG,YUDAOTUFASHIJIANYINGJINJICUOSHANG,XIANGHUZHICHIHEPEIHE。YINGJIADALIDU,PEIYANGSHULIANZHANGWOLIANGGUOYUYANHESHUXIGUOJISHIWUDEWAIJIAORENCAI,SHIZHENGCEGOUTONGLUODAOSHICHU。

        SANSHIYINDAOGUOJIYULUNZHENGXIANGFAZHAN。LIANGGUOZAIZHONGYAOGUOJIPINGTAITOUPIAOHECHANSHUZHUZHANGSHI,YINGCAIQUWEIHUFAZHANZHONGGUOJIALIYIDEGONGTONGLICHANG,YISHISHIWEIYIJU,YIRENMINLIYIWEINIUDAI,ZHENGQUGENGDUOGUOJIAZHICHI。CHUANMEIDEZUOYONG,ZAIHULIANWANGSHIDAIQIZHONGYAOXINGYOUQIBUNENGDIGU。LIANGGUOYINGHUXIANGTIGONGQINGBAO,YIBIANDUIFANGZHANGWOXIANGGUANSHITAIZHUDONGQUANHEYINDAOQUAN,WEIHUAJIEFUZADEGUONEIMAODUN、ZHENGQUYOULIDEGUOWAIYULUNHUANJINGDAXIAJICHU。

        [参 考 文 献]
        [1] 习近平.共担时代责任 共促全球发展——在世界经济论坛2017年年会开幕式上的主旨演讲[N/OL].(2017-01-18).新华网.
        [2] 赵银亮.俄罗斯国际秩序观的演变及其外交实践[G]∥冯绍雷,相蓝欣,主编.转型中的俄罗斯对外战略.上海:上海人民出版社,2005:80.
        [3] 中俄关系提升为“新时代中俄全面战略协作伙伴关系”声明全文[N/OL].新华社,(2019-06-06)[2019-08-04].http://www.globalview.cn/html/global/info_31999.html.
        〔责任编辑:徐雪野〕

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