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  • 跨文化背景下俄罗斯中国留学生群体研究——适应状况、存在问题、数据分析及可行建议
  • 2020-5-25 13:58:28    字数:4390    中俄资讯网101654.cn    作者:仝璐瑶 顾倩
  •     【摘要】近年来,随着“一带一路”的推动,中国与俄罗斯的合作与交往不断加强,中俄两国在教育方面的合作与沟通也越来越频繁。中国赴俄留学生的数量不断增长,中国留学生赴俄后要适应俄罗斯的环境,本文对赴俄中国留学生进行采访调查,收集数据资料分析,来了解赴俄中国留学生的生活和学习状况并提出一些可行的建议。作者:仝璐瑶 顾倩

    ZHONGEZIXUNWANGZILIAOTU

        ----------------

        一、中国留学生在俄现状调查的必要性

        ZIXIJINPINGZONGSHUJITICHUJIANSHE“YIDAIYILU”YILAI,ZHONGELIANGGUOJIAOLIUYUELAIYUEMIQIE,JIAOYULINGYUDEHEZUOYEYUELAIYUEDUO。JUSHILIAOJIZAI,ZAOZAI19SHIJIMO,ZHONGGUOXUESHENGJIUZAOYIKAISHIDAOELIUXUELE。1948NIAN,ZHONGGUOHEELUOSIDEJIAOYULINGYUKAISHIHEZUOYUJIAOLIU,DANSHIDAOLE20SHIJI,ZHONGELIANGGUOGUANXIBUWENDING,ZAIEZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGDESHULIANGJIJIBENZHUANGKUANGYEDABUXIANGTONG。1966NIAN,SULIANWEIWOGUOPEIYULEJINWANMINGJIAOYUHEKEYANZHUANJIA,DANDANGSHIZHONGELIANGGUOGUANXIYIRANJINZHANG,ZHIZHI1983NIANCAIMANMANHUIFUZHENGCHANGGUANXI。1992NIAN12YUE,ZHONGELIANGFANGQIANDINGLEGUANYUWENHUAJIAOLIUDEXIEDING—《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOZHENGFUHEELUOSILIANBANGZHENGFUWENHUAHEZUOXIEDING》,XIEDINGSHEJIDAOLEZHONGELIANGGUOGAODENGJIAOYUHEZUOJIAOLIUDEHENDUOLINGYU,WEIZHONGELIANGGUODEJIAOYUJINYIBUFAZHANDIANDINGLEYOULIDEJICHU,TONGSHIKAIQILEXINSHIQIZHONGEGAODENGJIAOYUJIAOLIUDEDAMEN。21SHIJIYIHOU,ZHONGELIANGGUOGUANXIZHUJIANYOUHAO,JINGJIJIAOLIUBUDUANZENGQIANG,2000NIANZAIZHONGESHUANGFANGZONGLIDINGQIHUIWUJIZHIKUANGJIAXIAYOUCHENGLILEZHONGEJIAOYU、WENHUA、WEISHENG、TIYUHEZUOWEIYUANHUI。JINNIANLAI,ZAIHUBANZHONGEGUOJIANIAN、ZHONGEYUYANNIAN、ZHONGELVYOUNIANJIZHONGEQINGNIANYOUHAOJIAOLIUNIANDENGGUOJIACENGMIANHEZUOHUHUIDEJIJITUIDONGXIA,ZAI“YIDAIYILU”DECHANGDAOXIA,ZHONGELIANGGUOHUPAILIUXUESHENGDESHULIANGBUDUANZENGDUO。ZHONGELIANGGUOGUANXIDEJUESUFAZHANHEWENDING,TUIDONGLEZHONGGUOFUELIUXUEDEQUSHI,ZHONGESHUANGBIANJIAOYUJIAOLIUYUJIAHUOYUE。

        YUOUMEIYIXIEFADAGUOJIADUIBIQILAI,ZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGJUEDEFUELIUXUEGENGFUHETAMENDEXUQIU,ZHEISHIYINWEIZAIELUOSILIUXUESHENQINGRENXUEDEMENJIANBIJIAODI,MEIYOUKOUYUHEZHUANYEDEKAOSHI,BINGQIEXUEFEIHESHENGHUOFEIYONGYAOBIYIXIEOUMEIFADAGUOJIAYAODI,GAOXIAODEJIAOYUSHUIPINGBIJIAOGAOBINGQIEYOUZHEBUFENDEYOUSHITESEZHUANYE。JUXIZHONGELIANGGUOYISHANGDING,DAO2020NIANZHENGQUSHISHUANGFANGLIUXUERENYUANZONGSHUDADAO10WANREN。SUIZHEZHONGGUOFUELIUXUESHENGDEZENGDUO,ZAIELIUXUESHENGSHIYINGZHUANGKUANGDEWENTIYEYUELAIYUEDUO,SUOYI,YOUBIYAODUIZAIELIUXUESHENGDESHIYINGZHUANGKUANGJINXINGYANJIU,FAXIANWENTIBINGTICHUYIXIEHELIHUAJIANYI,WEIYIHOUFUEDELIUXUESHENGTIGONGJINGYAN,SHIZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGGENGHAODISHIYINGELUOSI,YOULIYUPEIYUXINYIDAIRENCAI。

    ZHONGEZIXUNWANGZILIAOTU

        二、中国留学生在俄现状调查研究情况分析

        BENWENZHUYAOTONGGUOWENJUANDIAOCHADEFANGSHIFUZHIYISHIDIKAOCHALAIHUODESHUJU,QIZHONGWANGSHANGDIAOCHAWENJUANYOU110FEN。BENCIWENJUANDIAOCHAHESHIDIDIAOYANDEDUIXIANGSHIZAIEZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENG,BENKETIXUANQUFANWEISHIMOSIKE、YEKAJIELINBAO、KASHAN、PIYAJIGEERSIKESISUOCHENGSHI,DUIZAIEZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGKUAWENHUASHIYINGZHUANGKUANGJINXINGLEYANJIU。BENXIANGYANJIUZHUYAOCONGRENSHUGUIMO、SHENGYUANFENBU、XUEKEFENBU、LIUXUECENGCI、WEILAIZHIYEGUIHUA、CONGHUANJINGSHIYING、YUYANSHIYING、JIAOWANGSHIYING、XUEXISHIYINGDENGFANGMIANJINXINGYANJIU。

        BENCIDIAOCHABIAOMINGZAIEZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGGUIMODA,SHENGYUANBEIFANGXUESHENGBILIDAYUNANFANG,YOUQIDONGBEISANSHENGHESHANDONGDIQUSHENGYUANJIAODUO,LIUXUESHENGZHONGDAXUESHENGBILIZUIDA、YANJIUSHENGJIAOSHAO、GAOZHONGSHENGZUISHAO,DAXUESHENGDEBIZHONGYUEZHAN79.09%,YANJIUSHENGYUEZHAN18.18%,GAOZHONGSHENGJINZHAN0.91%。

        YANJIUXIANSHI,ZAIEZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENG50%SHILAIZIGUOJIAHUOXUEXIAOGONGPAI,49.09%SHILAIYUANYUJIATINGHUOGERENZIFEI。YANJIUZHONGFAXIANZHONGGUOFUELIUXUESHENGZHUANYEXUANZEMIANLVEXIAZHAI,ZHONGWENKE、QINGLIKE,DULIKEDELIUXUESHENGSHAOYUWENKELIUXUESHENG,ZHEIXIELIUXUESHENGZHONGXUANZEYUYANXUEDEZHAN73.36%,ERGONGCHENGJIANZHUXUEJINZHAN3.64%,LIKEZHUANYELIAOLIAOWUJI。ZAIELUOSI,LIGONGYUANXIAOJIXISUOSHIELUOSIFEICHANGHAODEJIAOXUEZIYUAN。DIAOCHAZILIAOBIAOMING,DABUFENLIUXUESHENGYIHOUHAISHIXIANGCONGSHIYOUGUANEYUDEGONGZUODE,QIZHONGFANYIZHAN26.36%、LAOSHIZHAN24.55%,17.27%DELIUXUESHENGXIANGZIJICHUANGYE,HAIYOUBUFENLIUXUESHENGDUIZIJIZHIYEMEIYOUFANGXIANGHEGUIHUA。

    ZHONGEZIXUNWANGZILIAOTU

        YOUYUZHONGEWENHUACHAYIJIAODA,LIANGGUODEXUESHENGZAISHIJIEGUAN、RENSHENGGUAN、JIAZHIGUAN、SHENGHUOFANGSHIHEGERENXIGUANDENGFANGMIANYOUZHEJIAODACHAYI。YUYANGOUTONGKUNNANDAOZHIRICHANGSHENGHUOBUNENGHENHAODEJINXING,YURENJIAOLIUBUBIAN,YOUDELIUXUESHENGDUICHUGUOLIUXUEMEIYOUZUOHAOCHIKUDEXINLIZHUNBEI,SHENGHUOZHONGYUDAODEKUNNANJIAODUO。BENCIDIAOCHABIAOMING,55.45%DEZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGBUSHIYINGELUOSIDEYINSHI。DABUFENXUESHENGBIAOSHI,CHUDAOELUOSITAIGUOMOSHENG,JIAOTONGFANGMIANTAIGUOKUNNAN,YURENJIAOLIUHESHIYINGDANGDIFENGSUFANGMIANBIJIAOKUNNAN,YOUYUBENCIWENJUANDEDUIXIANGLIUXUEDIDIANZAIBUTONGDECHENGSHI,XUESHENGDUIELUOSIDESHIYINGZHUANGKUANGYEBUJINXIANGTONG,QIZHONG62.73%DELIUXUESHENGNENGSHIYINGDANGDIDEQIHOU。DIAOCHAZHONGFAXIAN,XIAOBUFENXUESHENGBIJIAOXIHUANBINGJINGCHANGCANJIAELUOSIRENDESHEJIAOHUODONG,59.09%LIUXUESHENGBIAOSHIYOUSHIQUJITIHUODONG,HEELUOSIPENGYOUYIQIXIANGYUEJIAOLIU,QIZHONG68.18%DEJITIHUODONGDEXINXISHIXUEXIAOHUOLAOSHIGAOZHIDE;ZAIXINSHANGELUOSIYISHUFANGMIAN,10%DELIUXUESHENGBIAOSHIXINSHANGELUOSIYISHUMEIYOUKUNNAN,40.91%DELIUXUESHENGBIAOSHIYIBANKUNNAN,7.27%DELIUXUESHENGBIAOSHIFEICHANGKUNNAN。DUIYULEJIEELUOSIXINXIQUDAODEFANGMIAN,LIUXUESHENGHUOQUXINXIYEBUJINXIANGTONG,ERQIEQUDAODUOYANG,DABUFENLIUXUESHENGDOUSHITONGGUOHULIANWANG、WEIBO、QQ、WEIXIN、BAOZHI、ZAZHIDENG。CHUCIYIWAI,ZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGDOUYOUSIXIANGQINGJIE,QIZHONG37.27%DELIUXUESHENGHUIHENQIANGLIE,57.27%DELIUXUESHENGJIBENNENGSHIYINGLIKAIQINRENDESHENGHUOFENWEI,OUERXIANGJIA。

        BENCIDIAOCHAFAXIANBUFENZAIEZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGZAIXUEXICHUQIYUDAOKUNNAN。YIFANGMIAN,ZAIKETANGSHANG,WANQUANEYUSHOUKEDUIYUDADUOSHUCHUDAOELUOSIDELIUXUESHENGLAISHUOWANGWANGTINGBUDONG,YUYANSHIYINGXUYAOSHIJIANDEMOLIAN,DANYOUYUYIBANYISHANGSHIGUOJIAHUOXUEXIAOGONGPAISHENG,54.55%DELIUXUESHENGRENWEITONGGUOYIDUANSHIJIANXUEXIKEYISHIYINGELUOSIQUANESHOUKE,ZHIYOU5.45%DEXUESHENGRENWEIFEICHANGKUNNAN。LINGYIFANGMIAN,ELUOSIDEJIAOXUETIXIHEJIAOXUEFANGFAYUZHONGGUOGUONEIXIANGCHAJIAODA,ELUOSIJIAOXUEMOSHIXIANGDUIBIJIAOLINGHUO,SHANGKESHISHENGFAYANTAOLUNJIAOLIU,ELUOSIDEKETANGGENGHUOYUE。TONGGUODIAOCHAFAXIAN,ZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGJIAOYUFANGSHISHIYINGQINGKUANGJIAOHAO:DUIYUSUOZAIXUEXIAODEJIAOYUFANGSHI62.73%DELIUXUESHENGBIJIAOSHIYING。DABUFENLIUXUESHENGBIAOSHIELUOSISHISHENGDUIZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGDETAIDUHEPINGJIAYIBAN,DANYEHENSHAOYUDAOBUGONGPINGDEDAIYU。CHUCIYIWAI,SHIDIDIAOCHAFAXIAN,JINGWAIXUEXIHAICUNZAIANQUANYINHUAN,YOUYUZHONGELIANGGUODEWENHUABUTONG,JIAZHILIUXUESHENGDABUFENCHUYUHUOPOHAODONGDENIANLING,QIESHENGHUOJINGYAN、YUELIBUZU,DUIELUOSIGUOQINGHEMINZUXIGUANBUGOULEJIE,YUDAOWENTISHIRONGYIFASHENGWUHUI,HAIHUIYUDAOYILIAOWEISHENG、JIAOTONG、TUFASHIJIANDENGANQUANFANGMIANDEWENTI。

    ZHONGEZIXUNWANGZILIAOTU

        三、对在俄中国留学生跨文化适应的评价和建议

        CONGBENCIDIAOCHALAIKAN,ZHEICIDIAOCHAZAIEZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGDABUFENZAIEZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGYIXUEXIWEIZHONG,QINFENXUEXI,LIYONGZAIELIUXUEDEJIHUICHONGFENXUEXIKEXUEZHISHI,TIGAOZISHENJINENG,JIJIDISHIYINGZAIELUOSIDEXUEXI、SHENGHUODENG,LIUXUESHENGDESHIYINGGUOCHENGSHICONGBEIDONGDAOZHUDONGDEGUOCHENG。DUIYUQIGENGHAODISHIYINGELUOSILIUXUESHENGHUO,BIZHEYOURUXIAJIANYI:

        SHOUXIAN,DUIZAIEZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGDEJIANYIZUIZHONGYAODESHILIUXUESHENGDEXINTAIWENTI,LIUXUESHENGYAOJIJIZHUDONGDISHIYINGDANGDIDEWENHUA,SHULISHIYINGWENHUAXINXIN,BUYAOCHANSHENGDIKANGQINGXU,JIJIYULAOSHI、XUESHENGJIAOLIU;EFANGXUEXIAOYEYAOJIANLIJIANQUANZHENDUILIUXUESHENGJIANKANGXINLIFUWUJIZHI,CHONGFENFAHUIZHONGXUELIUXUESHENGXUESHENGHUIDEZUOYONG,ZHUYILIUXUESHENGDEXINLIWENTI,LIUXUESHENGBUSHIYINGKENENGSHIXUEXI、SHENGHUOFANGMIAN,GENGYAOGUANQIELIUXUESHENGDERENJIJIAOWANG,YOUXIELIUXUESHENGKENENGHUICHANSHENGSHILUO、GUDUDENGQINGXU,CISHIYINGGAIFAHUILIUXUESHENGJIANKANGFUWUJIZHIDEZUOYONG,DUILIUXUESHENGJINXINGXINLIFUDAO。

        DIER,ZHISHIJIUSHILILIANG,LIUXUESHENGYAONULIXUEXI,TIGAOZIJIDEZHISHIJINENG,ZHAODAOSHIHEZIJIDEFANGFA,ZHIDINGHELIDEXUEXIJIHUA,ZAITIGAOXUEXIDETONGSHI,ZENGQIANGZIJIDESHIJIANJINGYAN。ANPAIHAOMEIYIJIEDUANDEXUEXISHIJIAN,YOUJIHUIKEYICANJIASHEHUISHIJIAN,TONGGUOGEXIANGHUODONGTIGAOZIJIDESHIYINGNENGLI。ZHONGELIANGGUOJIAQIANGLIANGGUOJIAOYUDEHEZUO,WEIZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGTIGONGGENGDUODEXUEXIPINGTAI,BIRUCHUANGJIANZHONGEXUESHENGWENHUADABIPIN、ZHONGEXUESHENGCAIYIYANCHUWANHUIDENG。

    ZHONGEZIXUNWANGZILIAOTU

        DISAN,ELUOSIGAOXIAOKEYIJIANLISHIDANGDIKAISHEKUAWENHUASHIYINGDEKECHENG,TIGAOZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGDUIELUOSIWENHUADEXINGQU,JIANGJIEELUOSIDEGUOQING、FENGSUDENG,ZENGJIAYIXIEZUOECAN、CANGUANELUOSIBOWUGUANDENGDESHIJIANKECHENG,KAISHEYUYANXUNLIANKECHENG,YUYANSHIJIAOLIUBIBUKESHAODEGONGJU,DUOJUBANYIXIEJIAOLIU、LIANYIHUODONG,TIGAOLIUXUESHENGDEKOUYUJIAOJINENGLI,RANGZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGZAIXINDEHUANJINGZHONGBUDUANTIHUIWENHUADECHAYIBINGBUDUANSHIYING。

        DISI,CONGLIUXUESHENGJIATINGFANGMIAN,FUMUYAOGUANZHUHAIZIDEZHUANGKUANG,YOUQISHIHAIZILIUXUECHUQI,DUOWENHOUHAIZIDESHENTIZHUANGKUANGJISHENGHUOZHUANGKUANG,RANGHAIZICHONGMANXINXIN,JIYUANQUANGAN。

        四、结语

        BENCIZAIEZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGKUAWENHUASHIYINGYANJIUDEDIAOCHABIAOMING,ZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGYAONULIXUEXI、GANYUCHIKU,TIGAOZIJIDEKUAWENHUAHESHIYINGNENGLI,DUIYUZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGLAISHUO,KUAWENHUASHIYINGJISHIYICIKAOYAN,YESHIYICIZIWOTUPO。SUIZHEWOGUOJIAOYUDEFAZHANHEWOGUO“YIDAIYILU”DETUIJIN,FUEDEZHONGGUODELIUXUESHENGYURIJUZENG,ZHEIJIUXUYAOZHONGELIANGGUOJIAQIANGJIAOYUHEZUOYUJIAOLIU,BANGZHUZHONGGUOLIUXUESHENGGENGHAODISHIYINGELUOSIDEWENHUA,SHIQIXUEYIZHIYONG,CHENGWEIZHONGEJIAOLIUDESHIZHE。

        参考文献:
        [1]田丽娜、张宏莉.兰州大学《在俄中国留学生跨文化适应现状调查分析》[J].西伯利亚研究,2015年10月.
        [2]李萍.《留学生跨文化适应现状与管理对策研究》[J].浙江社会科学,2009年5月.
        [3]刘孝玲.山东女子学院《“一带一路”背景下中国高校教育合作管见》[J].《速读(上旬)》,2017年10期.
        [4]张学文.黑龙江大学《苏联解体后的中俄人文外交》[D] .2017.
        [5]庄若冰.广西师范学院国际文化与教育学院《浅忆中国留学生海外跨文化适应状况》[J].高等教育在线,2014.
        [6]张风格.新疆师范大学《中亚来华留学生跨文化适应研究》[D].2012.
        [7]张雷生.韩国延世大学《中国留学生的跨文化适应》[J].神州学人2014第1期.2014.

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